Variables

When an identifier is found, it must be resolved to a scope containing the variable's value. The search starts in the local scope.

Local Scope

The local scope contains all variables defined with the "var" keyword in previous syntactical blocks. In the following sample, x resolves to the value 3 :

var x = 3;
$print(x);

A "var" declaration is local to the curly-braced block it has been declared in. For example :

var x = 3;
// x defined
if( ... ) {
	// x defined
	var y;
	// x and y defined;
}
// x defined

The same variable name can be reused in the same block or another block. It will shadow or erase previous value :

var x = 1;
$print(x); // print 1
var x = 3;
$print(x); // print 3
if( ... ) {
	var x = "neko";
	$print(x); // print "neko"
}
$print(x); // print 3

Function parameters are also local variables. They are defined within the whole function :

var x = 3;
f = function(x) {
	$print(x);
}
f("neko"); // print "neko"

Since scoping is resolved at a purely syntactic level, local variables do not depend the on the current call-stack, and you cannot access variables defined outside the current local scope.

f = function() {
	$print(x);
}
...
var x = 3;
f(); // will print "null"

Function Scope

Local variables can be used inside functions if they're accessible at the time the function is declared. In this case, the value of the variable is a copy of its value at the time the function was defined :

var x = 3;
f = function() {
	$print(x);
}
x = 4;
f(); // print 3

Such variables are called environment variables because they're no longer part of the local context but of the function "environment" context. A function can still modify an environment variable, but this will not modify the original variable reference :

var x = 3;
f = function() {
	$print(x);
	x = x + 1;
}
x = 50;
f(); // print 3
f(); // print 4
$print(x); // print 50

Please also note that each function instance has its own environment :

gen = function() {
	var i = 0;
	return function() { $print(i); i = i + 1; };
}
f1 = gen();
f2 = gen();
f1(); // print 0
f1(); // print 1
f2(); // print 0
f1(); // print 2
...

Global Scope

When a variable is not found in the local scope or in the local function environment, it's a global variable. A global variable can be accessed throughout the entire file; it is shared among all code.

f = function() {
	$print(x);
	x = x + 1;
}
x = 0;
f(); // print 0
f(); // print 1
$print(x); // print 2
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